Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite: it is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. People catch malaria when the parasite enters the blood. The parasite causes a deadly infection which kills many people each year.
The parasite that causes malaria is a protozoan called Plasmodium. Protozoa are organisms with only one cell, but they are not bacteria. Bacteria are smaller and simpler than protozoa.
People usually get malaria from the Anopheles or Culex mosquitoes: they are the vectors of the disease. The Plasmodium gets into people by the bites of mosquitoes. The Plasmodium is in the mosquito’s special saliva.The mosquito’s saliva injects an anticoagulant into the person to prevent their blood from clotting. The person is then infected with Plasmodium as a by-product. This makes the person have the disease we call malaria.
40% of people live in a place where there is malaria.
How to prevent malaria? Control mosquitoes.
Vector control is one way to stop malaria. Vector means an organism that carries an infectious disease to another organism. For malaria, the vector is the Anopheles mosquito. The anopheles mosquito lays eggs in stagnant water. Biorem has developed a benign strain of microbes that when introduced into stagnant water, arrests the mosquito larvae development. No larvae – no mosquitos. This is done without any chemicals or any pesticides. The cost of such prevention is a fraction of the cost of the treatment of the disease, and the of cost human and social consequences.
1. Plasmodium-infected Anopheles mosquito bites a human and transmits sporozoites into the bloodstream.
2. Sporozoites migrate through the blood to the liver where they invade hepatocytes and divide to form multinucleated schizonts (pre-erythrocytic stage). Atovaquone-proguanil and primaquine have activity against hepatic-stage schizonts.
3. Hypnozoites are a quiescent stage in the liver that exist only in the setting of P. vivax and P. ovale infection. This liver stage does not cause clinical symptoms, but with reactivation and release into the circulation, late-onset or relapsed disease can occur up to many months after initial infection. Primaquine is active against the quiescent hypnozoites of P. vivax and P. ovale.
4. The schizonts rupture and release merozoites into the circulation where they invade red blood cells. Within red cells, merozoites mature from ring forms to trophozoites to multinucleated schizonts (erythrocytic stage). Blood-stage schizonticides interrupt schizogony within red cells.
5. Some merozoites differentiate into male or female gametocytes. These cells are ingested by the Anopheles mosquito and mature in the midgut, where sporozoites develop and migrate to the salivary glands of the mosquito. The mosquito completes the cycle of transmission by biting another host.