One of our most successful biotechnology products MM-KO addresses the three worst manure-related problems every large cattle farm anywhere in the world is facing, i.e. odors, solids build-up and loss of nitrogen.
The odor problem is relatively manageable, as in such environments anaerobic processes are dominant. We are developing several integrated solutions for this stage which we see as a more or less “localized” problem.
The smell becomes really severe when the manure is somehow “disturbed”, i.e. stirred, or mixed with something, loaded up for transportation, and actually transported to the areas to be spread in a field, etc. Spreading is where the smell can reach its highest levels causing public complaints (in the least) in large surrounding areas. Even when manure is stored in special buildings equipped with industrial ventilation, the arising odors are powerful enough to cause respiratory disorders among the cattle population.
Additionally, the cattle farm operators may be facing potential legal limitations because of environmental laws that are more seriously enforced with every passing year.
As to the solids build-up problem, the speed of organic material decomposition in liquid or semi-liquid cattle manure storage conditions is reduced. This slowing down results from the fact that the bacteria that are normally present in the manure, the “original” bacteria, if you will, pretty quickly perish. Their anaerobic “brethren” are among the few survivors, however they are not originally designed for or adapted to doing the work of decomposing multiple organic substances, especially those that are challenging to biodegrade, e.g. antibiotics. This is what causes the occurrence of solids build-up when the materials that are lighter move to the top, and the heavier fractions settle on the bottom or attach themselves to the sides of the storage facility, not to mention that the upper layers can quickly form a crust which is hard to break. Even if the crust is broken by some sort of agitation, the problems with the solids on the bottom or the sides remain. Farmers need to break the solids loose in order to obtain homogeneous slurry that can be pumped out. American and European cattle operators spend thousands of tractor-hours to deal with the solids build-up, not to mention having to spend vast amounts of fuel. The problem becomes aggravated when the bedding material, e.g. straw or husk, is stirred. That’s when the smells intensify exponentially, especially if the manure pits are positioned inside confinement structures.
As to the loss of nitrogen, it is commonly known that while the manure is stored, the process of decomposition continues, and a significant amount of nitrogen is lost because of ammonia conversion and the formation of gaseous aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds such as indole and skatole (by the way, skatole has been shown to be an attractant to gravid mosquitoes, which Biorem has studied in relation to the development of biotechnologies for vector control of mosquito-borne diseases such as the West Nile virus. Skatole has also been shown to cause pulmonary edema in goats and sheep). However, indole and skatole are very rich in nitrogen. These gases constantly emit from the manure decreasing its potential value as a fertilizer. Additionally, large quantities of valuable nitrogen are lost in the process of agitation and spreading in the fields. Due to the fact that most of the nitrogen in the manure exists in its unstable form, such losses continue even with the use of liquid manure injection or disking spreading systems.
Biorem’s MM-KO product is designed to be effective in dealing with these three issues. The result is an extremely efficient assimilation of cattle waste products.
Please also read about the next level of this product evolution – MM-KO-Fthat produces a perfectly balanced, nutrient-rich stable organic fertilizer out of the cattle manure.
MM-KO can be used in both aerobic and anaerobic cattle manure collection and storage systems.
MM-KO will produce a uniform mass. No separation of solids and liquids will occur. All fibers will remain a suspended state.
Nitrogen will be fixed as nitrites and nitrates which will then release into the soil.
Odor will be controlled through the intensive degradation of contributing compounds such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, etc.
The microorganisms in the MM-KO consortium will initiate the processes of hydrolysis and bio-oxidation in the litter resulting in the significant reduction of BOD and COD of the manure. Moreover, these reactions will continue through all the stages of handling and application of the litter including spreading the fertilizer in the field.
Dosing Concept: Use 1 kg of MM-KO for every 30 cubic meters of manure produced per month. Dealing with a more serious contamination, we recommend a weekly maintenance doze of 500 g of MM-KO for the same amount of manure.
For severe solids build-up or a heavy sludge deposit in the storage system, an initial or purge dose of 2 kg MM-KO for every 30 cubic meters of solids is recommended. This should be done just once, after which regular dosage should continue. This “shock” dose can be adjusted based on the severity of the build-up problem.
The accurate dose should be determined in each individual case because of the variations in a whole range of factors, as each cattle operation is different and may use different methods, feed, water, equipment, etc. Please contact a Biorem representative in your area.